Jell-O is a brightly colored, jiggly confection that’s a staple at dinner tables and frat parties. But what exactly makes this dessert so squishy?
It’s made from a protein called gelatin, which bonds together in a network. It also traps water molecules inside, allowing the gelatin to retain its jiggly properties.
You probably don’t think about it too much, but there’s a lot of space in this big blue ball we call home. In fact, there’s even a theory that space bends around matter. So, it makes sense that something like Jell-O would be able to show off some of the coolest tricks in the universe.
To demonstrate the magic of space, we’ll use a bowl of jelly and some fruit, nuts, and candy. Those items aren’t just good for the kitchen, though; they also serve as a reminder of what we’re missing when we step away from our planet.
We’re not going to pretend that we’ll get to see the inside of a galaxy or galaxy cluster, but we can show you the jello model for the same kind of astronomical feats. To prove it, we’re going to do it in the lab! The big question is: can we make this experiment a reality? Hopefully we can!
Turbulence is a force that isn’t always easy to predict. It can be light – an annoying bump that passengers sleep through, or severe enough to momentarily throw an aircraft out of control.
Pilots train to be ready for turbulence. It is different from wind that flows horizontally, a force that weather services can easily measure.
In some places, air doesn’t like to travel straight, and if it does, it can cause waves and vortices to form. This type of turbulence is called flow turbulence.
As you can imagine, this kind of turbulence can be dangerous. This is why pilots often practice preparing for it.
Another common source of turbulence is mountain waves, which are created when air pools against a mountain. Just like ocean waves, some of the air passes smoothly over a mountain and has “nowhere to go but up”; others are broken up by the sloping sides of the mountains, creating mountain waves. These are especially dangerous when they break up into currents that can push and pull an aircraft.
Airplanes are made of a variety of components, including the fuselage, wings, cockpit, engines and propeller. Each component has its own function, but all of them interact to keep the airplane aloft.
Airplane wings make lift by bending and squeezing air around them. There are three laws of motion that help explain how air pressure creates this force.
The higher air pressure on the outside of the wing pushes the wing up and the lower air pressure on the inside of the wing deflects the air downward, creating a Newtonian equal and opposite reaction that generates lift.
There are also forces that act in opposition to lift, called drag. These include parasitic drag, which is caused by form resistance and skin friction; and induced drag, which is created by the action of an object on another.
This isn’t to say that you won’t feel turbulence, but pilots are highly trained to handle it and modern aircraft are designed to withstand a lot of movement midair. As such, planes are one of the safest means of transportation out there, statistically speaking.
Gelatin is a protein-based food additive that comes from the collagen in animals’ skins, bones and connective tissue. It’s a natural substance and an excellent source of amino acids glycine and proline, which are often lacking in the diets of many people.
It’s also an important dietary supplement that can help with leaky gut syndrome, autoimmune disorders and more. It can also boost your ability to produce enough gastric acid for digestion and nutrient absorption.
It’s derived from the collagen found in cow and pig skin, bones and connective tissues that were once part of a living animal before it was killed in a slaughterhouse. It’s not vegetarian or vegan, but it can be made from bone broth (made by boiling bones and tendons) or by eating some meats with collagen.